This panel looks at how a program-theory model has been developed and used in an evaluation of an initiative designed to transform schools by assisting high schools in the development of 12th-grade capstone courses in math and science. We highlight the program model from which we have designed a rubric used to guide thinking on curriculum development and in which we have included in our classroom observation protocol. We also discuss how the model has informed the assessment of the leadership portion of the program and how it has informed our theory of change model. These efforts can help clarify antecedent conditions associated with the program, add to our understanding of programs that work, and illuminate under what circumstances program effects can be expected to occur. Such efforts would seem likely to hold the promise of more realistic solutions and add to the overall growth of our field.